Chapter 04 Extraoral and Occlusal Anatomic Landmarks Lateral Skull RadiographFig.

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Lateral Skull Radiograph

Fig. . Posterior clinoid process . Sella turcica pituitary fossa . Anterior clinoid process . Floor of anterior cranial fossa in the midline . Orbital plates of frontal bone Roof of orbit and floor of anterior cranial fossa lateral to midline . Ethmoid sinus . Frontal sinus . Orbit . Nasal bones . Lateral border of orbit formed by frontal process of zygoma and zygomatic process of frontal bone . Greater wing of sphenoid bone forming anterior wall of middle cranial fossa . Zygomatic process of maxilla Ushaped . Hard palate forming floor of nasal fossa . Lingual cortical plate of anterior portion of mandible . Buccal cortical plate of anterior portion of mandible . Mentum . Floor of maxillary sinus Zygoma arrow points at lower border of zygoma . Pterygomaxillary fissure . Sphenoid sinus . Petrous portion of temporal bone . Mastoid process of temporal bone . Mastoid air cells . Floor of posterior cranial fossa . Lambdoid suture . Markings of middle meningeal vessels . Diploe . Inner table of bone . Outer table of bone . Posterior border of ear plug holder of cephalostat

Lateral Skull Radiograph

Fig. . Posterior clinoid process . Sella turcica pituitary fossa . Anterior clinoid process . Floor of anterior cranial fossa in the midline . Sphenoid sinus . Orbital plates of frontal bone Roof of orbit and floor of anterior cranial fossa lateral to midline . Frontal sinus . Lateral border of orbit formed by frontal process of zygoma, and zygomatic process of frontal bone . Greater wing of the sphenoid bone forming the anterior wall of the middle cranial fossa . Pterygomaxillary fissure . Hard palate forming floor of nasal fossa . Roof of palate midline . Buccal cortical plate of anterior portion of mandible . Lingual cortical plate of anterior portion of mandible . Floor of maxillary sinus . Zygoma arrow points at lower border of zygoma . Sigmoid notch mandibular notch . Lateral pterygoid plate . Petrous portion of temporal bone . Mastoid process of temporal bone . Mastoid air cells . Lambdoid suture . Outer table of bone . Diploe . Inner table of bone

Zygomatic processes of maxilla one is of the side closer to the film and the other is of the side farther from the film .Floor of anterior cranial fossa in the midline .pharynx the anterior border is the pharyngeal surface of the base of tongue T .Lingual cortical plate of anterior portion of mandible .Orbit .Sphenoid sinus .Petrous portion of the temporal bone .Atlas first cervical vertebra .oesophageal space .Lateral Skull Radiograph Fig.pharynx O .Ethmoid sinus .Mastoid air cells .Trachea .Lower border of mandible of side closer to the film .Axis second cervical vertebra . S .Orbital plates of frontal bone Roof of orbit and floor of anterior cranial fossa lateral to midline .Frontal sinus .Anterior nasal spine .Naso .Oro .Lower border of mandible of side farther from the film .Maxillary sinus N .

Markings of the middle meningeal vessels . Posterior border of foramen magnum . Lambdoid suture . Coronal suture . Lateral pterygoid plate . Mastoid process of temporal bone . Floor of posterior cranial fossa . Zygomatic process of maxilla Ushaped of side closer to the film . Posterior border of ear plug holder of cephalostat . Zygomatic process of maxilla Ushaped of side farther from the film . Anterior nasal spine . Squamoparietal suture . Supraorbital margin .Lateral Skull Radiograph Fig. Lower border of zygoma . . Lambda . Nasal bones .

Superior border of orbit . Frontal sinus . Superior orbital fissure . Sagittal suture . Maxillary sinus . Lesser wing of sphenoid .PosteroAnterior Skull Radiograph Fig. Nasal cavity . Floor of nasal fossa hard palate . Crista galli . Floor of posterior cranial fossa . External oblique ridge . . Greater wing of sphenoid . Petrous portion of temporal bone . Mastoid process and mastoid air cells . Sphenoid sinus . Coronal suture .

Bregma . Gonion . Maxillary sinus . Greater wing of sphenoid . Floor of nasal fossa hard palate . Lacrimal canal nasolacrimal canal . . Squamozygomatic surface of greater wing of sphenoid innominate line . Coronal suture . Superior orbital fissure . Lesser wing of sphenoid . Frontal sinus . Zygomatic process of frontal bone joins to frontal process of zygomatic bone . Zygomatic process of maxilla . Infraorbital foramen .PosteroAnterior Skull Radiograph Fig. Mastoid process and mastoid air cells . Ethmoid sinus ethmoid air cells .

Sphenoid sinus . Squamozygomatic surface of greater wing of sphenoid innominate line . Frontal sinus . Nasal cavity . Crista galli . Lambdoid suture . Lambda . Sagittal suture .PosteroAnterior Radiograph Fig. Zygomatic process of maxilla . Anterior border of ramus . Petrous portion of temporal bone . Superior orbital fissure . Superior border of orbit . Posterior border of ramus . Greater wing of sphenoid . . Lesser wing of sphenoid . Floor of posterior cranial fossa .

Transverse process of axis . Lesser wing of sphenoid . Frontal crest . Zygomatic process of maxilla . Petrous portion of temporal bone .PosteroAnterior Radiograph Fig. Squamozygomatic surface of greater wing of sphenoid . Transverse process of atlas . Maxillary sinus . Nasal septum composed of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and the vomer bone . Zygomatic process of frontal bone joins to frontal process of zygomatic bone . . Floor of posterior cranial fossa . Atlas .axis articulation .

Nasal septum perpendicular plate of ethmoid . Inner cortical plate of frontal bone . Sphenoid sinus . Infratemporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid . Mandible has been removed for better visualization of the base of the skull . Foramen spinosum . Petrous portion of temporal bone . Anterior wall of middle cranial fossa formed by the greater wing of sphenoid . Outer cortical plate of occipital bone . Eustachian canal internal auditory canal . Lateral pterygoid plate . Ethmoid air cells opening into nasal fossa . Lateral wall of orbit greater wing of sphenoid . Inner cortical plate of occipital bone . Outer cortical plate of frontal bone . Occipital condyle . Body of zygoma . Inferior orbital fissure . Foramen lacerum . Zygomatic arch . External auditory canal .SubmentoVertex Radiograph Fig. Maxillary sinus superimposed on orbit . Posterior border of vomer part of nasal septum . Medial pterygoid plate . Foramen magnum . Clivus .

Mandibular condyle . Inferior border of mandible Inferior orbital fissure . Sphenoid sinus . Anterior arch of first cervical vertebra . Maxillary sinus . External auditory canal . Odontoid process dens of axis . Mastoid air cells . Lateral wall of maxillary sinus . Coronoid process . Middle cranial fossa . Clivus . Eustachian canal internal auditory canal . Superior alveolar border of mandible . .SubmentoVertex Radiograph Fig. Lateral wall of orbit greater wing of sphenoid .

Frontal sinus . Frontal process of zygoma joins the zygomatic process of frontal bone . Anterior margin of orbital floor . . Ethmoid sinus . Zygomatic arch . Condyle . Sphenoid sinus . Inferior border of body of mandible . Coronoid process . Squamozygomatic surface of greater wing of sphenoid innominate line . Mastoid air cells . Ramus of mandible . Body of zygoma .Waters View PosteroAnterior Maxillary Sinus Radiograph Fig. Inferior aspect of base of skull . Maxillary sinus . Lesser wing of sphenoid the radiolucent line is the superior orbital fissure . Supraorbital notch .

Maxillary sinus . Frontal sinus . . Frontal process of zygoma . Infraorbital foramen and canal . Zygomatic arch . Nasal fossa and conchae turbinates . Lateral wall of maxillary sinus . Inferior aspect of base of skull . Inferior border of body of mandible . Floor of middle cranial fossa . Ramus of mandible . Odontoid process of axis . Squamozygomatic surface of greater wing of sphenoid . Body of zygoma .Waters View PosteroAnterior Maxillary Sinus Radiograph Fig.

Lateral pole of condyle . Mastoid air cells . Sigmoid notch mandibular notch The space between the lateral pole of the condyle and the glenoid fossa is the joint space which contains the articular disc.Transcranial Radiograph of Temporomandibular Joint Fig. The articular disc is not visible on a radiograph because it is radiolucent. Glenoid fossa articular fossa . Articular tubercle articular eminence . . External auditory meatus . Zygomatic process of temporal bone . Closed mouth position transcranial projection . Medial pole of condyle .

Zygomatic process of temporal bone . Lateral pole of condyle . Medial pole of condyle .Sigmoid notch mandibular notch . Open mouth position transcranial projection . Mastoid process . Glenoid fossa articular fossa . External auditory meatus . Posterior border of ramus of mandible . Mastoid air cells . Articular tubercle articular eminence .Transcranial Radiograph Of Temporomandibular Joint Fig.

d flattened posterior slope of the articular eminence. Osteoarthritis Transcranial radiograph showing a osteophyte lipping indicated by arrow.Transcranial Radiograph of TMJ Fig. c reduced joint space. e shallowed articular fossa. . b flattened condyle.

Transcranial radiograph showing a quotsharpened pencilquot deformity due to extensive erosion of the condyle. .Transcranial Radiograph of TMJ Fig. Advanced stage of rheumatoid arthritis.

Nasal septum . Superciliary arch forehead . Nasolacrimal canal orbital entrance superimposed on posterior surface of hard palate . Nasal fossa .Maxillary Occlusal Radiograph Figure Maxillary occlusal radiograph . Zygomatic process of maxilla . Maxillary sinus . Incisive foramen .

Medial wall of maxillary sinus .Maxillary Occlusal Radiograph Figure Maxillary occlusal radiograph . Nasal fossa . Nasolacrimal canal . Lateral wall of nasal fossa .

Genial tubercles . Mental ridges . Inferior border of mandible cortical bone . Internal oblique ridge mylohyoid ridge .Mandibular Occlusal Radiograph Figure Mandibular occlusal radiograph .

Tongue . Cone cut technique error .Figure Mandibular occlusal radiograph . Genial tubercles .

Soft tissue of chin .Mandibular Occlusal Radiograph Figure Mandibular occlusal radiograph . Tongue . Mandibular tori .

Lingual foramen surrounded by genial tubercles . Inferior border of mandible cortical bone . Internal oblique ridges mylohyoid ridges .Modified Mandibular Occlusal Radiograph bisecting angle technique Figure Modified mandibular occlusal radiograph bisecting angle technique .

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